BSBMGT401 – Model High Standards of Management Performance and Behaviour Copy
Element 1: Model High Standards of Management Performance and Behaviour
Performance Criteria Element 1
1.1 Ensure management performance and behaviour meets the organisation’s requirements
1.2 Ensure management performance and behaviour serves as a positive role model for others
1.3 Develop and implement performance plans in accordance with organisation’s goals and objectives
1.4 Establish and use key performance indicators to meet organisation’s goals and objectives.
Model High Standards of Management Performance and Behaviour
Ensure Management Performance and Behaviour Meets the Organisation’s Requirements
Ensure Management Performance and Behaviour Serves as a Positive Role Model for Others
Values are the core of an organisation’s being; they help to distinguish an organisation from others. They underpin policies, objectives, procedures and strategies because they provide an anchor and a reference point for all things that happen. Values should be stated explicitly and unambiguously, and be feasible so that they provide guidance and motivation for people’s actions in all of the organisation’s activities (when they are clearly communicated they are said to be stated).
Implied values on the other hand are things that all organisations believe in such as ‘honesty’, ‘fairness’ and ‘integrity’. However while these are expected, they may not be clearly documented or stated. These would be considered implicit.
What is Leadership?
Many people believe that leadership is simply being the first, biggest or most powerful. Leadership in organisations has a different and more meaningful definition. Very simply put, a leader is interpreted as someone who sets the direction in an initiative and influences people to follow that direction. How they set that direction and influence people depends on a variety of factors that we will consider below. To really comprehend the ‘territory’ of leadership, you should understand some of the major theories on, and styles of, leadership. This will enable you to review some of the traits and characteristics that leaders should have.
The role of leadership in management is largely determined by the organisational culture of the company. It has been argued that managers’ beliefs, values and assumptions are of critical importance to the overall style of leadership that they adopt.
There are several different leadership styles that can be identified within each of the following management techniques. Each technique has its own set of good and not-so- good characteristics, and each uses leadership in a different way.
The autocratic leader dominates team members, using unilateralism to achieve a singular objective. This approach to leadership generally results in passive resistance from team members and requires continual pressure and direction from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, an authoritarian approach is not a good way to get the best performance from a team.
There are, however, some instances where an autocratic style of leadership may not be inappropriate. Some situations may call for urgent action, and in these cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best. In addition, most people are familiar with autocratic leadership and therefore have less trouble adopting that style. Furthermore, in some situations, subordinates may actually prefer an autocratic style.
The Laissez-Faire Manager
The Laissez-Faire manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process him / herself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little direction or motivation.
Again, there are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate when leading a team of highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the past. Once a leader has established that his / her team is confident, capable and motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By handing over ownership, a leader can empower the group to achieve their goals.
The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, while still maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows their team to decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task.
The democratic leader can be seen in two lights:
A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that they bear the crucial responsibility of leadership. They value group discussion and input from the team, and can be seen as drawing from a pool of the team members’ strong points in order to obtain the best performance from their team. The Democrat motivates the team by empowering them to direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign.
However, the Democrat can also be seen as being so unsure of themselves and their relationship with subordinates that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision. Clearly, this type of ‘leader’ is not really leading at all.
Being an Effective Leader
There are five keys to being an effective leader:
In order to be a leader who people want to follow, you need to ensure that you are aware of the results you want to achieve and where you want to go. Look at your vision, your mission and your values and use these to find the most effective strategic goals for your organisation. By focusing on where you want to go, you can be sure that you will actually get there.
People like to follow those people who are always themselves. Be real! Be yourself and manage people in the way that you feel works best. Consider, for example, the way that you want to be managed and manage those under you using similar techniques. By being real, you can build the trust that people feel when working with you.
A leader needs to recognise when they are doing things right and needs to have the courage to admit their mistakes.
Empathy is all about showing you understand how other’s feel. Listening skills need to show this empathy as much as you can. Appreciate what others are saying and use this knowledge to gain new ideas and build your relationships to be as strong as possible.
An effective leader understands the timings behind certain events and knows when and when not to make decisions. They understand the manner which is needed to make decisions, they understand the speed at which to move and they know which decisions to make, and when.
Professionalism as a Leader
Some major aspects of professional behaviour are:
Respect for Others
A good leader respects those that work for him or her. They do this by:
• Always displaying good manners
• Being courteous
• Being on time
• Being discrete when needed
• Being fair
• Being honest
• Keeping personal opinions to themselves
• Doing the work that needs to be done themselves
• Accepting feedback given
• Being sensitive
• Understanding that mistakes happen
• Apologising when appropriate.
An effective leader gets all their team members working towards a common goal.
Develop and Implement Performance Plans in Accordance with Organisation’s Goals and Objectives
Establish and Use Key Performance Indicators to Meet Organisation’s Goals and Objectives
Planning Performance Management
As a leader, you are going to need to undertake planning. Planning occurs whenever something needs to be put into action. In order to do this, you need to set performance standards and objectives for your teams to follow. Planning processes also mean putting effective means in place to measure overall performance, trying to find ways in which you can be sure that your leadership on a given task is actually working, and you are achieving what needs to be achieved
Writing Performance Standards
The first thing to do is to identify the purpose of the position. This is generally easy to do because it is stated separately or is included in the introduction to the position description. An excellent check to use in determining if the overall performance plan and related standards make sense, is whether they reflect the purpose of the position itself.
Purpose of the Position
The purpose provides managers with objectively based information for making decisions. You need to identify the major duties of the position using the position description. Let’s take an example of a position that has four key tasks. Within the descriptions of each of the duties, key words can be found that tell what the duties involve.
1. Studies the structure and / or functions of organisations.
2. Provides program cost analysis, annual and multi-year fiscal planning.
3. Provides program support, assessment and consultation services.
4. Conducts management surveys and research projects.
Note that duties one and four involve the conducting of studies, surveys and other projects that require similar skills. Therefore, they can be combined into a single critical element.
Critical Elements of the Position
During this step you are again trying to place the position within the context of the organisation. Two questions come to mind:
1. What is the organisation attempting to achieve?
2. What contribution can this position be expected to make?
This step demands more creativity than simply reviewing a position or job description for key words. Other questions to ask might include: Does my organisation have any special projects to accomplish this year, are there any initiatives that my department / division could work on or support, or, are there some long standing problems that could be addressed?
This is by far the most difficult step. This step states clearly what you expect then employee to do, as well as how well he or she is expected to do the work assigned. This takes time and thought. We will work through each of the three critical elements and describe each standard. The standards may then be consolidated into the draft performance plan.
Note the similarity between the performance standards for critical elements one and two. This often happens when a position has consistency in the duties assigned and skills employed. Could they be combined? Yes, but in this case we would recommend against doing that because there will probably be a great deal of difference between the approaches used in most management studies and the analytical approach needed to assess and recommend a forecasting model.
The next step is a ‘reality check’ to make sure the standards are realistic, complete and understood. It is also an exercise in getting the employee to ‘buy-into’ the work for the year.
You are finally in the position to sign the performance plan with your employee. Review again what is expected and make clear why accomplishing the standards IS important to the overall success of the organisation. If the employee needs training,a commitment to travel funds, a computer upgrade or new software, this would be an excellent time to let them know what you intend to do. This may be a good time to discuss with your employee his or her career goals and the training and development that you think might help his or her career or current performance. Finally, if there are some changes in the position description that might be appropriate, this is the time to discuss those changes.
Remember that the goal of this entire process is to get everyone in your organisation performing at the highest level possible. Good performance plans with clear standards are an important component in this process. Developing clearly written mutually agreed upon performance standards is not easy, but it is well worth the investment of time.
Getting the Best Performance
In order to lead and get the best possible performance from your staff, you need to look for ways to actually measure the level of performance of your staff, and determine exactly where and when this is to be done. Without this knowledge, you have no idea if what you are doing is actually working or not. Such measurement may be undertaken at a range of times, including:
• Professional Development Reviews
• Project Appraisals
• Compensation reviews
• And many more opportunities that are informal.
Determining how to monitor performance is an important step in developing performance plans. You may have worked through the previous steps of the process, developed what you thought were great elements and standards, and then found that monitoring performance on an element is impossible, or too costly, or too time-consuming. If this happens, think through other specific measures that indicate performance that are as specific as possible.
The process involves you in attempting to:
• Establish the type of information that you need to obtain and then look at where you can get it from.
• Establish the times for collecting the information that you need and then who will gather it.
• Look at reports that are already available to determine if they will be useful.
• Give feedback to appropriate staff.
• The performance you give as a leader and the behaviours you exhibit are crucial to the way in which your staff will perceive you.
• Ensure that your performance and behaviour meets both the organisation’s requirements and serves as a positive role model for others in the organisation.
• Performance plans should be developed as a leader, which allow you to ensure that your organisation reaches its required goals. Part of this performance plan must be a set of key performance indicators which allow you to measure progress towards goals.