TLIE3002 – Organise load Copy
Element 3: Organise load
3.1 – Load/s is restricted to allowable range
By the end of this chapter, the learner will be able to:
- Implement correct methods to restrict loads
- Interpret load charts, if applicable
- Implement strategies that promote environmental protection regarding load weights.
Restricting load/s appropriately
Once allowable load weights have been identified, you may find that the load exceeds the range identified. Methods should be implemented to restrict the load to ensure that it remains within the allowable range.
It is important never to try to squeeze things in if the load exceeds the allowable range as this may put you or others at risk, as well as breaching organisational guidelines or wider legislation. Your workplace policies should outline how you are able to deal with restricting loads.
Methods may include:
- Spreading the load onto multiple vehicles– this will be explored in more detail in the next chapter
- Storing products temporarily.
Your organisation may use a load chart to check that loads fall within the allowable range for specific vehicles and lifting equipment such as cranes. Load charts will include relevant information including dimensions and weight restrictions, but they may also provide more complex information such as lift range or lift angle for lifting equipment. If you plan to extract information from a load chart, you should ensure that you know how to read and interpret the information so as to avoid making mistakes.
Oversize overmass permits
In some states, it may be possible to acquire an ‘oversize overmass permit’. These permits can be gained for road and rail transport, and require an extra fee for loads which exceed the highlighted restrictions. A different permit is required for different vehicles, and may also differ when travelling interstate. It is worth doing some research or asking the relevant person(s) if an oversize overmass permit is something that your organisation can consider for loads which are heavier than the allowable range.
Your organisation is likely to take control of all the licensing side of things, but it is worth knowing the policies and procedures for your state so that you can make informed decisions regarding loading vehicles.
The economic reliance on road transport is having a damaging effect on the environment. Whilst this is not going to be prevented completely, there are steps that you and your organisation can take within your workplace to ensure that you are doing your best for the environment.
Methods may include:
- Ensuring that loads are restricted to allowable ranges will prevent unnecessary costs for vehicles having to return to you, or being unfit for purpose
- Ensure that the most relevant vehicle is chosen for the job, for example, if loads can be transferred to one larger vehicle as opposed to two smaller ones the carbon footprint of your organisation will be reduced
- Ensure that vehicles are maintained to a good standard
- Ensure that vehicles are driven appropriately i.e. avoiding harsh braking and accelerating.
3.2 – Load/s is spread to ensure safe weighting on pallets, trucks, platforms or other storage or transport systems
By the end of this chapter, the learner will be able to:
- Spread loads safely on different types of storage systems including racking
- Take the correct steps to distribute loads safely on all forms of relevant transportation systems
- Be aware of legislation and regulations that cover all relevant aspects of their work.
Spreading a load
As already mentioned in a previous chapter, you may be required to spread a load if it exceeds the allowable range outlined by your organisation and legislation. It may also be required to spread a load to ensure safe weighting on different systems. So whilst the weight of a load will fit into the allowable range, there will be methods of stacking which will ensure the safety of those who are required to unload or move the load, as well as the load itself.
The storage options you use need to be safe for purpose. Sometimes storage safety can be neglected as the focus is placed on transportation regulations and safety. However, storage safety is of equal importance and could cause serious injury to yourself or your team if not maintained to a good level. Part of this safety will rely on the safe weighting of equipment and storage systems.
There are a number of steps that you could take to ensure that storage safety is promoted.
Using the example of racking, steps to follow might include:
- Make sure racks are installed and used as per manufacturer’s instructions
- Display load limits on the racks
- Secure loads on pallets before storing in racks
- Make sure that racking is rated to suit the load or that it is not overloaded
- Position pallets across a rack so weights are evenly distributed.
(Taken from source: https://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/sites/default/files/atoms/files/freight_forwarding.pdf )
Following these steps for any of your storage options will promote safe weighting and ensure the safety of yourself and others.
Spreading loads on vehicles appropriately will help to ensure that space is used efficiently and safely. This could save time and money for your organisation. You need to consider both legalities as well as the satisfaction of all people involved when spreading loads evenly; this includes protecting the driver of a vehicle in the case of an accident and ensuring that weight restrictions are not exceeded.
Using the example of road transport, there are a few steps that you can take to ensure that weight is spread evenly:
- Loads should be spread to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible – this means placing larger and heavier items at the bottom
- To maintain stability, heavy items should be stacked as close to centre line of a vehicle as possible
- Heavy items should be placed in front of crushable items or restrained where possible
- Loads should be organised in a way that prepares to minimise the risk to the driver in the case of an accident.
(Modified from source: https://www.nzta.govt.nz/assets/resources/roadcode/truck-loading-code/docs/tlc.pdf )
Your organisation is likely to have more specific guidelines in place which detail how best to load vehicles so as to ensure that loads are spread to ensure safety and efficiency.
Your responsibilities regarding safe loading may vary depending on your role within an organisation. In some instances, you may have to be aware of guidelines and restrictions that are not directly your responsibility or fall within your job role.
For example, the National Transport Commission (NTC) provides guidelines as to who is responsible for different tasks within transporting:
- It is the responsibility of the driver, the vehicle owner, and the vehicle operator to ensure the vehicle used is suitable for the type of load
- It is the responsibility of the consignor including the original consignor of the freight, to provide the person in charge of the loading and the driver with any available information on the weight of each load and the centre of mass of the load or each item in a load
- It is the responsibility of the person in charge of the loading and the driver to ensure the load is correctly positioned on the vehicle
- It is the responsibility of the vehicle operator, the person in charge of the loading and the driver to ensure any dunnage is correctly chosen, positioned and restrained on the vehicle
- It is the responsibility of the person in charge of the unloading to ensure unloading does not present any danger to any person.
(Taken from source: https://ntc.gov.au/Media/Reports/(E62BE286-4870-ED95-1914-1A70F3250782).pdf )
Safe weighting should also be applied to any equipment or machinery that you use to move goods from one point to another, for example, a forklift truck or a pallet truck. Allowable weights should be displayed on the equipment, or provided by your organisation. Similar strategies can be applied to lifting equipment as was mentioned for road transport, such as considering the centre of gravity to maintain stability.
You should be able to risk-assess a situation when preparing to use equipment so that you can negotiate your actions around any potential danger.
You should consider:
- Others who are working in the same location
- Loading and unloading – ensuring that goods are stacked and spread appropriately to be safely removed
- Your vision – don’t obstruct your view with goods that have been stacked too high.
WHS (Workplace health and safety)
Spreading the weight of loads and the use of equipment is likely to be a part of the health and safety code implemented by your organisation. Workplace health and safety is potentially the most important code of conduct that you will follow throughout your role. Whilst following health and safety procedures is improving the working environment by actively preventing risks, there are still many incidents that could be avoided by safer work practices.
A report by Safe Work Australia (2013) found:
- There was a 48 percent decrease in the annual number of work-related injury fatalities in the industry over the last four years. Despite this, fatality rates in the road freight transport industry were roughly ten times higher than those for all industries across the eight years up to 2011
- 78 percent of the work-related injury fatalities in the Road freight transport industry occurred while driving or being driven in a vehicle on a public road
- There were around 4000 non-fatal serious workers’ compensation claims requiring a week or more away from work each year between 2002 and 2011
- The majority of serious workers’ compensation claims were caused by manual handling or falls rather than vehicle incidents.
As the findings from this report show, although accidents are lessening, the logistics area still poses a number of risks that you are vulnerable to. Following the procedures outlined by your organisation will help to ensure the safety of yourself and everyone around you.
3.3 – Appropriate workplace documentation is completed
By the end of this chapter, the learner will be able to:
- Complete all relevant documentation correctly. Documents might include:
- computer-based documentation.
Documentation is essential to all organisations as a method to keep and access information. The documentation that you need to be aware of will vary depending on your organisation, as well as the responsibilities within your role.
It is likely that the majority of documentation that your organisation is required to keep will be related to transportation. Again, the relevant documentation will vary depending on your organisation and the services which it provides.
Documentation that may be required for transport includes:
- Bill of Lading – a detailed and accurate list of the goods being carried by the vehicle
- Commercial invoice
- Packing list
- Packing declaration form
- Manufacturing declaration (if applicable).
(Taken from source: http://info.bcr.com.au/what-documents-are-required-by-your-freight-forwarding-company-when-importing-into-australia Accessed: 19.12.2016)
Some documentation will be a legal requirement for transportation. Documentation may be related to state, interstate or worldwide transportation. Incorrectly completed documentation may prevent goods from being transported to their destination; costing your organisation both time and money. If you are unsure about how to complete any documentation correctly, you should ask the relevant person(s) to ensure that no mistakes are made and to protect your organisation.
Your organisation may also require you to produce internal documentation for certain tasks or orders.
This may include:
Forms to complete
Logs/diaries to keep on top of
Filling in forms is very likely to be a regular part of your job role; this may just be signing something off or filling in a whole form. Either way, the ability to interpret forms and fill them in correctly and efficiently may be the difference between safety and danger for yourself or others.
A more specific example of a form that you may be requested to fill is a CWD. A CWD is a declaration of the weight of a container and its content. A CWD will be required for any heavy vehicles that will be on the road.
A CWD must include:
- The weight of the container including its contents (you may estimate the mass, however, subject to the reasonable steps defence, you may be liable if your estimation is incorrect)
- The container number and other details necessary to identify the container
- The name and residential address or business name and address in Australia of the responsible entity for the freight container
- The date of declaration.
Incorrectly filling out a CWD may render the vehicle unfit or illegal to be on the road, so it is important that all information you provide is correct. If you are unsure of anything, you should ask before you fill in any parts of the form.
Your organisation may have logs or diaries in place to keep a track of the work that is being done. This might include simple checklists to provide proof that tasks are being completed or logs of any issues that have been identified to ensure the safety of the working environment.
You should be able to complete all relevant log or diaries according to the policies and procedures of your workplace. For example, an incident diary may require a full breakdown of an incident and the actions that were taken to prevent similar occurrences in the future, i.e. not overloading storage racks.
Any paper-based documentation you deal with may need to be transferred to computer-based information. This will depend on the preferences of your organisation.
There are many benefits of computer-based documentation including:
Can be maintained for a long period of time
Can transfer over multiple systems, rather than a single paper copy
Can be accessed by multiple users
Keeps the office clean and tidy – no paper left around
Quick and easy access – you don’t have to shuffle through papers to find the correct documents.
You need to ensure that you are aware of the requirements of your organisation for computer-based documentation and that you have knowledge of the systems in place.